There are five major oceans on earth; this free Map of the Southern ocean will explain to you about one of the principal oceans—the Antarctic ocean. Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans are the major oceans. Surrounding the southern ocean is the south portion of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. In the year 2000 International Hydrographic Organization created this southern ocean surrounding Antarctica, thus also referred to Antarctica ocean. More can be seen in the printable world map.
Table of Contents
World Map of the Southern Ocean
Map of World with the Southern Ocean
World Map with Southern Ocean pdf
Black and white World Map with the Southern Ocean
Where is the Southern Ocean located
Geography of the Southern Ocean
Features of the Southern Ocean
Natural disasters that occur in the Southern Ocean
Current events in the Southern Ocean
International consensus on the Southern Ocean
The Southern Ocean’s ports and harbors
When you view the southern ocean on Map, you will see the ocean surrounds the Antarctica continent at 60 degrees with the north limit. Also, this is the only ocean with no landmass as a boundary, and the three significant oceans, the Pacific, Indian, And Atlantic oceans, form its borders. It has very rapid water circulation, which causes a specific change in water and differentiates it from other oceans and the main reason it is considered the ocean. See more on the map of the Southern Ocean below.
The southern ocean is the 2nd most miniature ocean globally, with an area of 20.327 million sq km. From the south of the ocean Map, you can see that the Amundsen Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Drake Passage, Ross Sea, and the Weddell Sea are the main parts of this ocean. Also, the southern ocean is not universally accepted and recognized by all nations globally; hence, it needs to be recognized internationally. More can be seen in the map of the Southern Ocean below.
The department of oceanographic research found the water circulation of this ocean different from the other five existing oceans. Its size is about double the U.S.A, i.e., 20.3 million square kilometers. Its lowest point is in the South Sandwich Trench and is about 7,235 meters. It is almost cold water temperature which varies from -2°C to 10°C. Its current waves are 100 times the water flow of the world’s all rivers. Check out the map of the Southern Ocean below.
In the IHO, there are 68 countries from which 28 countries responded to the research on the formation of the southern ocean. In these 28 countries, except Argentina, all countries agreed to create and give it a new name. So the southern name ocean was presented. Despite all this research and observations, all the oceans are connected. Check out the black and white world map with the Southern Ocean below:
The map of the Southern Ocean, commonly known as the South Polar Ocean (and previously the Antarctic Ocean), is a body of water that circles Antarctica. It is the world’s fourth-largest ocean and the most recent to be named, having been acknowledged by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) in 2000, even though seamen have long used the phrase. This shift reflects recent oceanography findings on the importance of ocean currents.
This ocean’s history is inextricably linked to the argument over its designation as an independent ocean, which impacts its name. The Antarctic Ocean, often known as the Southern Ocean, originally appeared in the IHO’s Limits of Oceans and Seas in the Second Edition (1937). The phrase Antarctic Ocean was removed from the Third Edition, issued in 1953, since the IHO believed it was inappropriate to identify the Antarctic Ocean as a separate ocean. An ocean, it was thought at the time, should be described as “water surrounding by land” rather than “water encircling land.”
In the year 2000, there was a reexamination of the Antarctic Ocean. The Southern Ocean was chosen over the commonly used Antarctic Ocean by a majority decision of the panel. Half of the votes were cast for ending the ocean at the imaginary 60 degrees south latitude line (with no land interruptions at this latitude), with the remaining 14 votes cast for different definitions as far north as 35 degrees south. The Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans continue to extend to Antarctica, according to other sources such as the National Geographic Society.
Because the Southern Ocean is at the farthest point of the Southern Hemisphere, it is heavily influenced by the sun’s seasonal influence. The ice packs melt to an average low of 2.6 million square kilometers during the winter months when the sun is not shining directly on the ocean. The ice packs rebuild as the sun moves away from the water. A narrow and deep continental shelf, with typical depths of 4,000 to 5,000 meters, distinguishes the ocean.
Many oceanographers considered the Southern Ocean the world’s youngest ocean, having developed barely 30 million years ago. Tectonic action, notably the separation of Antarctica and South America during the early phases of the earth’s evolution, caused the ocean to form. The Drake Passage was opened when the two plates separated, allowing the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to develop. This water circulation is unique to the Antarctic Ocean because it keeps the waters flowing around the continent of Antarctica. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is expected to move 130 million cubic meters of water each second. Thus, any fluids caught in it go eastward swiftly.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is a crucial player in the debate over the Southern Ocean’s designation as a separate aquatic entity. The current divides the waters of the Southern Ocean from those of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, according to scientists who feel the Southern Ocean warrants its name. The Southern Ocean is essentially merely the swiftly flowing water. A few remaining scientists, on the other hand, think that the current name issue is due to a meteorological current rather than a geographic limitation. The current waters are different from those in the northern oceans in that they are colder and have higher salt levels than other waters.
The sharp contrast between the ice packs and the ocean waves frequently causes cyclone-like storms in the Southern Ocean. These storms are hazardous for any sailors or marine vessels trapped in their path, as they have the strongest winds on the planet. Aside from the batteries, marine boats must be wary of icebergs and cold surface temperatures. The Antarctic Ocean’s icebergs, some of which stretch hundreds of meters, offer a year-round menace to ships.
The powerful winds and large waves caused by cyclones in the waters are hazardous for marine vessels and sailors in the Antarctic Ocean. The latitudes 50-70 have earned the titles “Furious Fifties” and “Shrieking Sixties” because they pose a year-round threat to sailing boats.
The ships that brave the Antarctic Ocean’s harsh circumstances do so in pursuit of riches from the region’s vast natural resources. The Southern Ocean is frequently used as a route to sand and gravel, as well as a source of access to petroleum and natural gas deposits on the continental coast. The seas provide squid, whales, sea animals, krill, and a diversity of fish for world markets, just like an ocean.
You might want to ask the question, where the southern ocean is located on the Map? The Southern Ocean is located in the Southern Hemisphere and has average depths of 4,000–5,000 meters (13,000–16,000 feet) over most of its length, with only a few shallow places. The Antarctic continental shelf is narrow and extremely deep, with depths up to 800 meters (2,600 feet) near its edge, compared to a global average of 133 meters (436 ft).
The Antarctic ice pack swings from an average minimum of 2.6 million square kilometers (1.0 million mi2) in March to around 18.8 million square kilometers (7.2 million mi2) in September, more than a sevenfold increase in area, according to the sun’s seasonal effect. At 21,000 kilometers (13,000 miles), the Antarctic Circumpolar Current moves eastward, chasing and joining itself. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the world’s longest ocean current, measuring 21,000 kilometers (13,000 miles) in length and conveying 130 million cubic meters (4.6 billion cubic feet) of water each second—100 times the flow of all the world’s rivers. At 60°00’S, 024°W, it reaches a maximum depth of 7,235 meters (23,737 feet) at the southern extremity of the South Sandwich Trench.
The Southern Ocean’s climate ranges from 2 to 10 degrees Celsius (28 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit). Because of the temperature difference between ice and the open ocean, cyclonic storms migrate eastward around the continent and are frequently strong. The average winds are the strongest anywhere on Earth, from 40 south to the Antarctic Circle. The ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector in the winter, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius; at some coastal points, intense, persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free all winter.
You can find icebergs in the ocean at any time of year. Smaller icebergs, fragments, and water (usually 0.5 to 1 meter thick) are also an issue for ships, with some having a draught of several hundred meters. Glacial deposits vary greatly across short distances on the deep continental shelf. During much of the year, high winds and strong waves, as well as ship ice, make the area even more difficult, especially from May to October. Because of the region’s remoteness, search and rescue resources are limited.
The Antarctic ozone hole’s increased solar UV radiation has reduced marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% and is harming the DNA of some species. Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, particularly the catching of an estimated five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the authorized fishery, has a significant impact on the stock’s sustainability. Long-line fishing for toothfish also has an effective incidental fatality rate for seabirds.
All international accords governing the world’s waters apply to the Southern Ocean. Binding it is the following regional agreements:
- Commercial whaling is prohibited south of 40 degrees south latitude by the International Whaling Commission (south of 60 degrees south between 50 degrees and 130 degrees west). When it comes to its whaling permission and whaling for scientific research, Japan frequently ignores this rule and conducts whale hunts in the region.
- Seal hunting is prohibited under the Antarctic Seal Conservation Convention.
- The Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation Convention governs fishing in the region.
Many countries prohibit mineral resource development and exploitation south of the Polar Front, which runs across the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and separates the icy polar surface waters from the warmer waters to the north. Claims to Antarctica and any islands in the Southern Ocean are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty, which covers the region of the planet south of sixty degrees south.
Between July 1 and June 30, 1998, the Southern Ocean Fisheries economy landed 119,898 tons, of which 85 per cent was krill and 14 per cent was Patagonian toothfish. In late 1999, international agreements were signed to limit illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, which landed five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the authorized fishery in the 1998-99 season. In the summer of 1998-99, 10,013 tourists, most of whom were seaborne, visited the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, up from 9,604. During the 1999-2000 season, around 16,000 tourists were predicted.
On the southern (Antarctic) coast of the map of the Southern Ocean, few ports or harbors exist since ice conditions limit their use to a few weeks in midsummer; even then, some require an icebreaker escort. Most Antarctic ports are run by government research stations and are closed to commercial and private vessels except in an emergency; ships entering any port south of 60 degrees south must be inspected by Antarctic Treaty observers. Esperanza Base, Villa Las Estrellas, Chile, Mawson Station, McMurdo Station, Palmer Station, Scott Base, and offshore anchorages in Antarctica are prominent.